Jacquard
   Jacquard is the name of an elaborate woven design found in tablecloth damask, bedspreads, and brocades. The weave gets its name from the Jacquard loom, on which flower designs or even pictures of men and women can be woven. The name Jacquard is also used for a type of knitting that requires a machine somewhat like the Jacquard loom to make changes in color or design.
   The invention of the Jacquard loom by Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834), born in 'Lyons, France, simplified weaving, but it also cost thousands of silk workers their jobs. There was much turmoil, and Jacquard on one occasion was seized by an angry mob and barely escaped with his life. The problem subsided when Napoleon purchased the loom and declared it to be the property of the French state. The purchase hastened the lowering of silk prices, which, in turn, greatly improved the market for silk, and thus helped the reemployment of workers in that industry. In 1819 Jacquard was awarded a gold medal and the Cross of the Legion of Honour. The use of his loom spread to England in the 1820s and from there virtually worldwide.
   The loom was so constructed that each warp thread could be raised or lowered. It thus became the first practical machine to weave intricate patterns. It was operated and controlled by punched cards, forerunners of those used with the modern computer. Jacquard is a fabric woven by the Jacquard method.

Dictionary of eponyms. . 2013.

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  • jacquard — [ ʒakar ] n. m. et adj. inv. • 1834; n. pr. 1 ♦ Métier à tisser dont Joseph Jacquard réalisa la mécanique vers 1780. 2 ♦ Adj. inv. Un tricot, un pull jacquard, ou n. m. un jacquard : tricot qui présente des bandes de motifs géométriques ou de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Jacquard — Jac*quard , a. Pertaining to, or invented by, Jacquard, a French mechanician, who died in 1834. [1913 Webster] {Jacquard apparatus} or {Jacquard arrangement}, a device applied to looms for weaving figured goods, consisting of mechanism controlled …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • JACQUARD (J.-M.) — JACQUARD JOSEPH MARIE (1752 1834) Mécanicien français, né à Lyon et mort à Oullins (Rhône). À la fin du XVIIIe siècle, le tissage des étoffes brochées s’effectuait encore à la main. Les fils de chaîne, entre lesquels on passait les fils de trame… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Jacquard — [jak′ärd, jə kärd′] n. [after J. M. Jacquard (1752 1834), Fr inventor] 1. a) a loom with an endless belt of cards punched with holes arranged to produce a figured weave: also Jacquard loom b) the distinctive mechanism of this loom 2. a) the weave …   English World dictionary

  • jacquard — ► NOUN 1) an apparatus consisting of perforated cards, fitted to a loom for the weaving of figured and brocaded fabrics. 2) a fabric made on a jacquard loom. ORIGIN named after the French weaver Joseph M. Jacquard (1787 1834) …   English terms dictionary

  • Jacquard — 1841, from Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752 1834) of Lyons, inventor of new weaving technology c.1800 …   Etymology dictionary

  • Jacquard — (spr. Schackahr), Jos. Marie, geb. in Lyon 1752; war erst Buchbinder, dann Gießer, erfand einen Webstuhl (Jacquardscher Webstuhl), auf welchem façonnirte Seidenstoffe u. einfache Stoffe viel leichter u. schneller als sonst gewebt werden können (s …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Jacquard — (spr. schakār), Joseph Marie, Mechaniker, geb. 7. Juli 1752 in Lyon, gest. 7. Aug. 1834 in Oullins bei Lyon, erlernte die Buchbinderei, ward hierauf Schriftgießer, ging dann zur Seidenweberei über und legte 1772 bei Lyon eine eigne Werkstätte zur …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jacquard — (spr. schackahr), Jos. Marie, Seidenweber, geb. 7. Juli 1752 zu Lyon, gest. 7. Aug. 1834 in Oullins bei Lyon; Erfinder der Jacquardmaschine (1808) zum Einweben von Mustern in Webstoffe. – Vgl. Kohl (1873), Grandsard (2. Aufl. 1875) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jacquard — (Schakahr), Jos. Maria. geb. 1752 zu Lyon. gest. 1834. Erfinder der Jacquardmaschine, eines Webstuhls, auf welchem façonirte u. einfache Zeuge viel leichter und schneller als auf dem früheren Stuhle gefertigt werden, eine Erfindung von… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

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